No picture from his time has survived, only written accounts.
He was buried, with only a handful in attendance, in a small monastery at Valladolid, Spain, wearing the habit of the third order of Saint Francis and, according to his wishes, in the chains he wore upon his arrest after his third voyage to the New World. Only three lines of text marked his obituary in the official record [Hevesy 1929].
To start with, no historical figure's origins has been arguibly more written about than him, perhaps the outcome of an illegitimate birth.
What's more, some historians have asserted that
he was a great hero, while others have painted
him as a greedy villain (Check Columbia University in NY page).
Xpo ferenS The man was for real, flesh and bones a true sailor.
Who else made 4 journeys and back from America -without GPS - and reaching the same destination! A feature difficult to repeat even in 1913. Columbus was a master seaman as well as being a great salesman, but on the other hand he was a poor geographer.
Geography, the subject I failed so many times in my high school years.
- Had he read the "Pizzigano Map"? It was first discovered in 1953, among the thousands of manuscripts (currently held at the University of Minnesota)
- Was the Piri Reis revelations true? "a book fell into the hands of the said Columbo" in the Arabic year 890. Had Columbus made a secret voyage to America, the real discovery voyage, six years before 1492, with Pope's backup as the Piri Reis map leads to.
Anyway, I for one engross reading "speculative history," history about conspiracy theories, speculation, and possible discoveries and explorations, which is why I have so many books on 1421, Columbus, Marco Polo, etc. On other genuine fakes, check here)
‘The sheer weight of the evidence presented makes the old tale of a Columba-named, cheese-stall Genoese or wool-weaver so obviously unbelievable that only a fool would continue to insist on it,’.
Answer these two idle questions
A) Some people told me that Christopher Columbus
was British, is he British, or Spainsh?
He was originally from england, he travelled across the continent
looking for a country that would sponsor his voyage ...
B) Wasn't the Polish mariner Jan of Kolno the first to discover America?
Christopher Columbus był POLAKIEM – tak twierdzą najnowsze badania!
No. It was COLOMBOWICZ, the son of Vladislav III, an exiled King of Poland.
"An international team of distinguished professors have completed 20 years of painstaking research into (Christopher Columbus') beginnings.
The fresh evidence about Columbus’ background is revealed in a new book by Manuel Rosa, an academic at Duke University in the United States.
If doubting which answer to pick up, the are so many theories about her kinship) the answerr my friend is -perhaps- blowing in Chios winds, a red land in the border of the Aegean Islans. He stated he was Chistoferens de Terra Rubra (Latin for Red Earth) and for that he may have well meant Nikolaos Ypsilantis , a Byzantine prince, you may recall that the Paleologos Dynasty. Columbus never said he was from Genoa. He said he was from the Republic of Genoa, something much different. Chios was back then was part of it.
Go back to dates and facts.
due to the circumstance of his birth, to protect his father’s self-exiled identity, Columbus, who died in 1506 after four voyages to the New World, was required to conceal his own identity by changing his real name and hiding his true origin.
FACT_1#:Columbus (Colon) had as well a cryptic blessing, his monogram (the Cipher of a person's initials) and his own Sigla (a Trademark) in all his correspondence with his son Diogo Columbus.
This is based mostly on an analysis of his signature. Since he never signed his name conventionally, the pseudonymus theory is reinforced,
his name meaning in Latin "Bearer of Christ" (Christo ferens) "and
of the Holy Spirit" (Columbus, dove in Latin).
Las Casas continued, that Columbus bore the name Christopher
—Christo-ferens, that is, “Christ-Bearer.”
After his third voyage, Columbus made the name
Christo- ferens an official part of his signature.
FACT_2#:Accounts form his time: Madeira
Columbus's stay in Portugal and Madeira from 1476 to 1485
Although much has been written about Columbus's life in Italy and Spain, little has been written about his formative years in Portugal. This work is the first book-length analysis of Columbus's stay in Portugal and Madeira from 1476 to 1485 and his later experiences in the Portuguese islands of the Azores and the Madeiras. The work stresses the influence the Portuguese had in educating Columbus about the sea, and it depicts his famous voyage to the New World as a logical sequence of the pioneering voyages of the Portuguese in the North Atlantic and along the West Coast of Africa. The work attempts to sort legend from fact and debunks the many myths about Columbus's stays on the island of Madeira.
Military Studies #39: Christopher Columbus and the Portuguese, 1476-1498
FACT_3#:They found two papal bulls dated May 4, 1493, written in Latin by Pop Alexander V1 referring to the discoveries of the Western Hemisphere by Crisrofom Colon. Dr da Silva points out that the name is written in Portuguese and not Spanish (Cristobal Colon), is not written in Latin like the rest of the manuscript (Christopher Columbus), and is not written in Italian (Cristoforo Colombo.)Historians at work:Dr da Silva added after a full analysis:Christopher Columbus was Portuguese!This peculiar signature of Columbus is attached to various documents written :Proposed authentic identitySalvador Fernandes Zarco, son of Fernando, Duke of Beja, and Isabel Sciarra.Alfredo De Melo has also published a book titled "Columbus" (Carlton Press Corp.)
BARRETO, MASCARENHASThe Portuguese Columbus, Secret Agent of King John IIThe amazing investigative work of Barreto proves Columbus was
(1) a spy,
(2) Portuguese (NOT Italian), and
(3) JEWISH! Barreto breaks the secret code of Columbus' signature and exposes the explorer's covert life.
FACT_4#: Authentic Letters of Columbus.William Eleroy Curtis,Honorary Curator, Department of Columbus Memorial. Chicago, U. S. A. May, 1895.There is one letter in the handwriting- of Columbus, BUT the greater portion having
been written by several different amanuenses. The penmanship of his brother Bartholomew and his son Fernando are identified in several places. The signature or rubric of Columbus which appears at the close of all his communications, as the sign of the cross appears at the begin- ning, has never been satisfactorily interpreted. It was the custom in his time for men of importance to adopt sign manuals of a peculiar sort, as they adopted mottoes for their escutcheons, which had some apparent or concealed significance.
The signs used by Columbus are generally interpreted to mean
"Servus Suplex Altissimi Salvatoris Christus Maria Vosef,"
which in English reads,
"The humble servant of Christ, the Supreme Savior,
Mary and Joseph, Christ-bearer."
The last line was often written " Christo Ferens," and several signa- tures appear without it, and with " El Almirante," (the Admiral) instead. These were written after his appointment as admiral in the Spanish navy.
The most plausible rendering of the signs seems to be, "Salvo Sanctum Supulcrum Xriste Maria Yesus Xristo Ferens."
FACT_5#: Alonso Sanchez (de Huelva??)
"(1485) ...And because of the delay they ran out of water and supplies. For this reason and because of the great privations they had suffered on both journeys, they began to sicken and die, and of seventeen men who left Spain, no more than five reached Terceira, among them the pilot Alonso Sanchez de Huelva. They stayed at the house of the famous Genovese Christopher Columbus, because they knew he was a great pilot and cosmographer and made seamen's charts. He received them kindly and entertained them lavishly so as to learn the things that had happened on the long and strange voyage they said they had undergone. But they arrived so enfeebled by hardships that Christopher Columbus could not restore them to health despite his attentions, and they all died in his house, leaving him the heir to the hardships that had caused their death"
also mention Huelva's discovery:
later researches seem to confirm the tradition, and such writers as
George Horn, Laet, Alderete, Jose de Acosta, Grotius, and Hakluyt
appear to give it full credit.
Mariana affirms that there are authentic proofs of Huelva's landing at Madeira.
Ferdinand Denis, in his "Articles critiques,"
Fray Geronimo de la Concepcion, in his "Cadiz Ilustrado," and
Diego da Costa, in "Ocios de Espanoles Emigrados,"
Some believe that the information provided by Sánchez, concerning headings and distances, influenced Columbus's plans. Others believe that Alonso Sánchez never existed and that he was simply part of an attempt by the Pinzón brothers to discredit Columbus's skills as a navigator.
Indeed, no document from the time tells about any Alonso Sánchez, and everything known about him comes from the writers that told his story well after Columbus death.
EPILOGUE that predates other sources
To end the trade routes of the world at the year 990
(before the vikings decided to set in Normandy and occupy England and Sicily)
There is, in any event, additional credible evidence of Jewish activity in China that goes back to the latter part of the 9th century, when ibn Khurdadbih, the so-called Postmaster of Baghdad and a northern Persian Geaographer, alluded to Jewish traders known as Radanites who traveled from such distant points as Spain and France all the way to China and back by any of four already well-established land and sea routes. I